. Areas of lower salinity (river runoff, ice edge)
will reduce the conductivity of the water and overall
effectiveness of MIW operations. Conductivity is
directly proportional to salinity and temperature.
. In coastal environments with a large input of
fresh water from river runoff, a strong positive sound
velocity gradient can form causing upward refraction of
the sonar beam.
There are several METOC considerations that must
be addressed in the planning and conducting of MIW
l Surface winds If they are too strong, can we
have an effective operation?
l Wave action Affects underwater visibility,
burial and movement of mines, accuracy of navigation,
sound velocity profiles, deployment of MNVs, sweep
gear, and divers.
. Prevailing visibility If obstructions to
visibility are present, navigation, minehunting and
sweep effectiveness is decreased.
. Hours of daylight Airborne minehunting,
minesweeping, and EOD diver operations are primarily
conducted during daylight hours.
Now lets discuss the environmental
amphibious warfare (AMW) operations.
BRIEFING OF METOC SUPPORT FOR
Commander, Amphibious Task Force (CATF),
and all interested personnel on expected
METOC conditions during the planning,
embarkation, rehearsal, movement, and assault
phases of AMW operations.
In this discussion of AMW operations we will be
discussing environmental support during the Planning
phase, followed by the Embarkation phase, Rehearsal
phase, Movement phase, and lastly the Assault phase
THE PLANNING PHASE
The Aerographer must first become familiar with
the initial operation plans (OPPLANs) and operation
orders (OPORDs), and must attend pre-mission
briefings and conferences so that environmental factors
affecting the various aspects of the mission can be
addressed. In addition, the Aerographer must be
prepared to provide the following:
. Long-range climatological and historical data.
During the planning phase this can prove critical to
mission success. Determine conditions that will most
likely influence the location and time of landing
Weather. Emphasis should be given to cloud
ceiling height, visibility, and winds. This
also includes local effects.
Sea, swell, and surf conditions.
Sea surface temperatures.
. Astronomical data (sunrise/sunset, moonrise/
moonset, and percent of illumination), tidal data that
affects local anchorages, as well as surf conditions to
Character of surf zone.
Degree of exposure of potential obstacles in
the surf zone.
Wave oscillation in harbor/s.
. Hydrographic data for inshore navigation of
Treacherous regions of bays, harbors, etc.
THE EMBARKATION PHASE
During this phase, equipment and troops are
embarked in assigned ships.
Load out is
. Amphibious operations are keyed to sequential
. Environmental support may include both
mid-range and short-range forecasts.
l The OA division aboard the LHA/LHD/LPH
becomes the focal point of the operation.