METOC EFFECTS ON VARIOUS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Identify the
publication that outlines the contents of
antisubmarine (ASW), space and electronic
warfare (SEW), strike warfare (STW),
antisurface warfare (ASUW), and antiair
warfare (AAW) briefs.
It is beyond the scope of this text to discuss all the
information considered important for the various METOC
briefs listed below. Significant information regarding
these briefs, for the most part, is confidential. Refer to
the text Environmental Effects on Weapon Systems and
Naval Warfare, (S)RP1, for a discussion of these topics:
l Environmental factors affecting ASW operations
. Environmental effects on special warfare
l Environmental effects on SEW
. Environmental effects on chemical, biological,
and radiological (CBR) operations
. Environmental considerations for STW
l Environmental considerations for ASUW
l Environmental considerations for AAW
l Target environmental conditions
Now lets discuss those elements of importance
during the planning and execution of minewarfare
BRIEFING OF METOC EFFECTS ON
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Brief the effects
that water depth, currents, tides, and bottom
characteristics have on MIW operations.
Understand the impact of the magnetic,
acoustic, pressure, and biological environments
on MIW operations.
There are environmental considerations unique to
the planning of MIW operations and this section will be
devoted to this topic. For further discussion of MIW
operations, refer to the technical manual, Composite
Warfare Oceanographic Support Modules (CWOSM),
Part 1, TM 04-92.
Water depth is a factor to be considered in the
spacing of mines, sensitivity setting, mine type, and
mine impact velocity (air-laid mines).
. Bottom mines In deep water (180 ft or
greater), detonation will not cause much of a disturbance
in the upper layers of the ocean.
. Moored mines Depth may exceed the mooring
range required for the mine to be effective.
l Sensitivity and actuation width Important for
bottom mines since an increase in depth will result in a
decrease of the sensitivity and actuation width of a
. Damage width Water depth affects the
damage width in the same way as in actuation width.
Increasing water depth causes a reduction in the damage
width of a mine.
l Mine burial upon impact The depth at which
terminal velocity is reached depends on the initial
velocity when launched and the depth of the water.
Subsurface currents may set in different direction
as mines descend, and current velocity may also vary
These factors must be considered
during planning of MIW operations.
l Burial Burial on the sea floor can result from
scour (water velocity increases around the mine, setting
sand and sediments in motion, burying the mine). Once
the mine is completely buried, scouring stops.
. Sand ridge migration Currents may cause
large sand dunes to migrate along the bottom in the
direction of the current. The dunes can be as high as 12
to 20 ft.
. Mine dip (vertical movement of mines) An
increase in mine depth from the normal vertical position
above the mooring point. Current action creates forces
against the mine, increasing the depth, Dip is directly
proportional to current speed; therefore, dip will
increase with faster currents. During flood and ebb