ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
COMNAVSURFLANT/PACINST 3840.1 (Joint Surf Manual).
Local onshore winds (creating sea waves) and swell waves traveling from distant
The area between the shoreline and the outermost limit of the breakers
Wave speed decreases, wavelength decreases, and wave height increases,
The ratio of wave height to wavelength.
Hydrography includes water depth, near-shore currents, tides, shoreline
configuration, the beach slope, and bottom composition.
Sandbars will cause waves to break farther from shore and with stronger force.
Sandbars may be exposed during low tide and cause landing craft to become hung-
up on the bar.
Wave refraction is the bending of waves toward areas of slower wave speed caused
by interaction with the ocean bottom.
By color code or letter abbreviations.
Significant breaker height is the average height of the highest one-third of the 100
waves observed, recorded to the nearest half-foot.
The direction of breakers is determined by the direction the breakers are moving
toward as seen from seaward.
Littoral currents are produced by waves approaching the shore at an angle,
generating a net flow of water along the beach.
An increase in breaker angle and/or breaker height.
Rip currents may be identified as a stretch of unbroken water in the breaker zone
where no breakers occur.
The outer limit of the rip current is usually an area
marked by patches of foam, and discolored by suspended silt.
The width of the surf zone and the number of breaker lines
REL WIND 045° 12 KTS L FLANK ONSHORE.