A2-1. Speed is the rate at which something moves in a given amount of time.
A2-2. The amount of work done is the product of the magnitude of the force and the
distance moved. W=F·d.
A2-3. The two types of forces that AGs deal with are contact force and action at a
A2-4. The two basic particles that make up the composition of matter are the atom and
A2-5. The correct formula for density is D
(or D M V)
, whereas the density
equals the mass divided by its volume.
A2-6. Fusion is the change of state from a solid to a liquid at the same temperature.
A2-7. The behavior of gases depend on the variations in temperature, pressure, and
A2-8. According to Boyle's Law, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its
pressure, provided the temperature remains constant.
A2-9. According to Charles' Law, if the volume of an enclosed gas remains constant,
the absolute temperature is directly proportional to the pressure.
A2-10. The universal gas law states that the product of the initial pressure, initial
volume, and new temperature (absolute scale) of an enclosed gas is equal to the
product of the new pressure, the new volume and the initial temperature. PVT' =
A2-11. The two basic kinds of atmospheric energy important to AGs are kinetic energy
and potential energy.
A2-12. The definition of lapse rate is the rate of decrease in the value of any
meteorological element with elevation.
A2-13. The dry adiabatic lapse rate is 5 1/2°F per 1,000 feet, or 1°C per 100 meters.
A2-14. The two types of conditional instability are real latent and pseudolatent.
A3-1. The length of day and the angle of the Sun's rays influences the Earth's
A3-2. The unequal heating of Earth's surface due to it's tilt, rotation, and differential
insolation, results in the wide distribution of pressure over Earth's surface.
A3-3. The rotation of Earth causes a force that affects thermal circulation, causing it to
be deflected to the right of the direction of movement in the northern hemisphere.
A3-4. According to the 3-cell theory, Earth is divided into six circulation belts.
A3-5. According to the 3-cell theory, subsidence or high pressure is usually found at 30
degrees north latitude.
A3-6. The trade winds are the predominant winds in the tropics.
A3-7. Two types of pressure gradients are horizontal and vertical.
A3-8. The difference between centripetal force and centrifugal force is that centripetal
force is directed toward the center of rotation, and centrifugal force is directed
outward from the center of rotation.