having personal experience at a particular station can
use climatology as a refresher for the overall weather
patterns that can be expected for the ensuing season.
This knowledge can help them to be more perceptive in
their everyday analyses, to be alert for changing
patterns with the seasons, and to produce a higher
The personnel who have had no experience at a
particular station must rely on climatology as a
substitute for their experience.
assistant forecasters cannot be expected to become
familiar overnight with the weather peculiarities of
certification period can be greatly reduced if the new
people are furnished with packaged experience in a
form that can place them more nearly on a par with
those forecasters already experienced at that station.
The Local Area Forecasters Handbooks are good
examples of this type of packaged information.
The Naval Meteorology Oceanography Command
makes many uses of climatological data. In using the
data, however, it must be clear that climatology has its
limitations in the field of meteorology. It may be put
this way. Climatology is an essential supplement to
meteorology, but it must never be considered a
substitute for the meteorological situation that
constitutes current weather conditions.
What is the correct method to obtain
What publication is also useful for obtaining
climatology information for a particular
various types of weather and climate of the
oceans and continents.
Aerographers Mates are stationed, and may travel,
around the world. Ships and aircraft are constantly in
global transit. Therefore, the Aerographers Mate must
have a general knowledge of types of weather
encountered during various seasons in regions all
around the world. This knowledge also increases
development and movement, weather effects on the
environment, and credibility as a knowledgeable
analyst, interpreter, and briefer.
NOTE: You will find that a world atlas can be
extremely useful and informative if used in conjunction
with the information that follows.
Naval vessels of the United States operate in
virtually all the oceanic areas of the world; therefore,
the Aerographers Mates must be acquainted with
oceanic weather. Some general considerations of the
weather encountered over ocean areas are discussed in
Because land and water heat and cool at different
rates, the location of continents and oceans greatly
affects the Earths pattern of air temperature and
therefore influences the weather. The upper layers of
the ocean are almost always in a state of motion. Heat
loss or gain occurs at the sea surface and is distributed
throughout large volumes of water. This mixing process
sharply reduces the temperature contrasts between day
and night and between winter and summer.
Oceanic Weather Control
It has long been recognized that the ocean plays an
important part in climate and weather, particularly in
the realms of temperature, humidity, and precipitation.
This is only natural, since three-fourths of Earths
surface is covered by water.
The two climatic extremes that relate to water and
continental. A wide range in annual and diurnal
temperatures, little cloudiness, and little precipitation
generally evidences Continental climate. Continental
climate is a product of a minimal influence from the
oceans. Maritime climate prevails over the oceans and
is characterized by a small temperature range, both
annual and diurnal, and considerable precipitation and
Water vapor is considered one of the most
important variables in meteorology. The state of the
weather is largely expressed in terms of the amount of
water vapor present and what is happening to the water
vapor. Two principal elements of climate, precipitation
and humidity are dependent upon water vapor. Since
the oceans are the main source of water vapor, it follows
that the oceans largely control weather.
Effects of Air-Sea Interchange
The atmosphere and the oceans have tremendous
effects on each other. These effects are principally in