CLIMATOLOGY AND WORLD WEATHER
One of the major tasks of the Aerographers Mate
and the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography
Command is providing long-range weather information
and predictions based on recognized meteorological
occurrences in a particular area or region of the world.
Naval exercises both at sea and ashore is planned
months and sometimes years in advance. To carry out
these exercises successfully, we must have an idea of
the normal weather conditions for the operational area
(OPAREA) at that time of year. It is both dangerous and
unwise to conduct costly training exercises if the
weather conditions for the OPAREA are known to be
adverse at that time of year.
During wartime, an extensive knowledge of
weather conditions can be a decisive advantage. Naval
and land forces can use their knowledge of weather to
surprise the enemy and predict when the enemy will
strike. Historically, man wages war when the weather
permits. When Napoleon invaded Russia, his defeat
was not due to the wisdom of his opponents, but rather
to his lack of knowledge of the severe Russian winters.
He was beaten by the weather.
As you gain more experience, your job will include
the preparation of long-range weather forecasts based
on climatological studies. You must prepare charts,
climatological information is needed for long-range
naval exercises, ship deployments overseas, and actual
CLIMATE AND CLIMATOLOGY
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Define climate,
climatology, and related terminology.
Before starting any discussion about climate and
climatology, we must become familiar with these and
other related terms. In this lesson, we define climate,
various types of climatology, and climatology as it
relates to other sciences such as ecology.
Climate is the average or collective state of Earths
atmosphere at any given location or area over a long
period of time. While weather is the sum total of the
atmospheres variables for a relatively short period of
time, the climate of an area is determined over periods
of many years and represents the general weather
characteristics of an area or locality. The term climate
applies to specific regions and is therefore highly
Climatology is the scientific study of climate and is
a major branch of meteorology. Climatology is the tool
that is used to develop long-range forecasts. There are
three principal approaches to the study of climatology:
physical, descriptive, and dynamic.
The physical climatology approach seeks to
explain the differences in climate in light of the
processes producing the various kinds of physical
climates, such as marine, desert, and mountain.
Physical climatology deals with explanations of
climate rather than with presentations.
Descriptive climatology typically orients itself in
terms of geographic regions; it is often referred to as
regional climatology. A description of the various types
of climates is made on the basis of analyzed statistics
from a particular area. A further attempt is made to
describe the interaction of weather and climatic
elements upon the people and the areas under
consideration. Descriptive climatology is presented by
verbal and graphic description without going into
causes and theory.
characteristics of the general circulation of the entire
atmosphere to the climate. Dynamic climatology is
used by the theoretical meteorologist and addresses
dynamic and thermodynamic effects.