ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
Nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare.
Allied Tactical Publication (ATP) 45. Reporting Nuclear Detonations. Biological
and Chemical Attacks, and Predicting and Warning of Associated Hazards and
There are six types of NBC messages. Ground forces report information using
grid coordinates, distances in kilometers. and wind speeds in KPH while Naval
Forces use geographical coordinates, distances in nautical miles, and wind
speeds in knots.
An EDF is an Effective Downwind Forecast used for planning purposes. An EDM
is an Effective Downwind Message that is transmitted after an actual nuclear
detonation, providing more specific fallout prediction areas.
The wind direction, downwind speed, and the expansion angle for nuclear
weapons of more than 30 kilotons and up to 100 kilotons.
NBC 3 NUC, an effective downwind message for ground forces and a NAV NBC 3
NUC, an effective downwind message for Naval Forces.
The amount of fallout depends on the weapon yield and the type of burst. The
amount of personal contamination depends on the concentration of the fallout. the
amount of time the person has been in the contaminated area, and the total
radiation the person has been exposed to over a period of time.
A8. A surface burst.
Exposed, unprotected personnel may operate in hazard Zone II between 4 and 24
hours after the arrival of fallout before receiving dangerous dosages of radiation.
1 nautical mile.
The effective downwind speed is the distance traveled by the fallout in 1 hour. It
may be calculated for any specific time and distance using the estimated wind
The Ships Fallout Template is unscaled since geographical charts used at sea are
not uniformly scaled.
Effective downwind speed (knots), downwind distance of Zone I (nautical miles),
and cloud radius (nautical miles).
5 nautical miles.
Zone I and Zone II are drawn as circular patterns from GZ.
1 kilometer for ground forces and 1/2 nautical mile for Naval Forces.